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Foot And Ankle Injuries

Anatomy and Physiology of the Foot and Ankle

foot and ankle injury

The foot and ankle is an intricate combination of 26 bones, 33 joints, over 100 various muscles, tendons and ligaments as well as a working interconnection of blood vessels and nerves. The foot can be divided up into three essential sections: The forefoot contains the toes and metatarsals, with each toe consisting of several individual small bones that allow extensive flexion and extension.

The mid foot makes up the foot’s arch and serves as a critical cushion for the body. The hind foot is the crucial area where the foot and ankle is linked via three joints and two lower leg bones, the tibia and fibula. This area contains the calcaneus heel bone, the largest bone in the foot, and the entire structure helps form the ankle-foot hinge that allows for flexion and extension.

The ankle joint’s ability to flex and extend is combined with the ability to turn the foot inward and outward, providing the body a versatile base for stability and mobility. However, the extraordinary movement of the joint is very susceptible to injuries. Commonly injuries occur at the lateral or medial areas of the joint where the lower leg connects to the foot via tendon and ligaments. Here, ligaments can be easily stretched or torn due to excess inversion or eversion of the foot, causing the connection between lower leg and foot to be injured.

Achilles Tendonitis

Achilles Tendonitis typically occurs when a repetitive stress is placed on the tendon and gradually causes the tendon to become inflamed.

Achilles Tendon Rupture

The Achilles Tendon connects the calf muscles to the heel. A rupture can occur when the tendon is placed under a high tension.

Ankle Sprains

Ankle Sprains occur through a twisting motion or a movement that causes the ankle to roll, causing minor tears in the ankle ligaments.

Arch Pain

Arch Pain is used to describe the symptoms associated with inflammation of the tissues under and within the middle of the foot.

Athlete's Foot

Athlete's Foot is a fungus growth that can occur on the feet and rapidly spread when the feet are exposed to a moist warm environment.


Blisters are typically caused by friction between the skin and a surface and produces a fluid filled sacs on the surface of the skin.

Heel Spurs

Heel Spurs are calcium deposits that form on the back of the heel when continual tension is placed on the plantar fascia.

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar Fasciitis is the inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick fibrous band of tissue located on the bottom surface of the foot.

Stress Fracture of the Foot

Stress Fractures can occur when an overload of stress is placed on the foot, resulting in small fractures of the toe or metatarsal bones.

Turf Toe

Turf Toe occurs when excessive stress is placed on the big toe via the foot wear and the artificial surface, damaging the ligaments.