Cosmetic Surgery

cosmetic surgery

Whereas plastic surgery is a medical specialty primarily focused on restoring form and function to the human body through a variety of surgical procedures, cosmetic surgery is likely the most recognized subspecialty of plastic surgery. Plastic surgery itself consists of a variety of treatments, such as burn treatment, microsurgery, and reconstructive surgery.

Cosmetic surgery differs from plastic surgery in that it is more focused on aesthetics, or enhancement of appearance of the human body. A cosmetic surgeon helps a person maintain a "normal appearance" or their perceived and mentally healthy view of normal.

Hence, cosmetic surgery is rarely ever medically necessary, as without the surgery the patient would not be in immediate physical danger. However, plastic surgery, on the other hand, focuses not only on cosmetic procedures, but on other surgeries that can be dangerous, or even life-threatening.

History of Cosmetic Surgery

The earliest records of reconstructive surgery date back to 800 BC in India. Rudimentary procedures were being performed and extensively recorded by a surgeon in India named Sushruta by the 6th century BC. The ancient Romans and Egyptians also practiced certain cosmetic surgeries as early as the 1st century BC. For example, evidence of minor ear repair survives in written accounts.

Due to religious reasons, however, Roman surgeons were forbidden from dissecting human corpses and animals, which left them with limited knowledge of surgical procedures. The ancient Greeks were not as squeamish, and left numerous records of human anatomy on which the Romans heavily relied.

Not only did the lack of internal anatomical knowledge limit Roman surgeons, but also the lack of anesthesia. This made even the most basic of procedures incredibly painful for the patient. Patient reflexes to the pain and a lack of sanitation made any form of surgery particularly dangerous, and cosmetic "vanity" surgeries were very rare.

But in the 19th and 20th centuries, surgery began to become more common. Infections dropped after the introduction of sterilization techniques for surgical instruments, and the introduction of antibiotics like penicillin made infections less likely.

One of the most influential early plastic surgeons was Harold Gillies, whom many doctors today refer to as the "father of plastic surgery." In 1917, Gillies performed cosmetic surgery on a British sailor named Walter Yeo, attached a skin flap to his face to replace eyelids Yeo had lost during the World War I engagement, the Battle of Jutland. The surgery was successful. Later, in 1946, Gillies would leave another profound fingerprint on the history of cosmetic surgery by performing the first successful female-to-male sex reassignment surgery.

Cosmetic Surgery Today

cosmetic surgery

Today, the United States is a hot spot for plastic surgery procedures, with 11 million surgeries performed in this country alone in 2006. Due to the rapid advancement of medical technology, making some seemingly dangerous procedures out-patient, or very minor surgeries requiring no overnight stay. In 2007, 12 million purely cosmetic surgeries were performed in the U.S.

The majority of cosmetic surgeries and procedures performed within the United States today are not actually considered surgical, instead, they are non-surgical and include procedures like Botox injections or laser hair removal. In 2010, for example, more than 9 million cosmetic procedures were performed in the U.S.; and of those, only around 1.6 million were actually surgical.

Around 81% of the individuals that receive cosmetic surgery are Caucasian, although that number has recently begun to shift. Although cosmetic surgery is often considered an American invention, it has now become very common in European countries like Germany, France, and the United Kingdom. Добро пожаловать на лучший ресурс для ставок на спорт! Это всем известный Мостбет! На этом сайте Вы непременно найдете, то и ту спортивную дисциплину, которая больше по душе и сможете без затруднений сделать ставку на спорт онлайн! Мосбет предлагает каждому новому зарегистрировавшемуся бонус, размер которого достигает до двадцати пяти тысяч рублей! Разнообразие и огромное количество спортивных мероприятий впечатлит даже самого требовательного болельщика! Важно,что на территории РФ без смены IP Вы не сможете пройти по ссылке. Качайте программу по смене IP и будьте с лучшими!!!

Types of Cosmetic Surgery

The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery maintains a statistical database of 34 of the most common cosmetic procedures in the United States, but there are many more, including custom surgeries for some patients. Some of the types of cosmetic surgery include:

  • Abdominoplasty
  • Blepharoplasty
  • Browplasty
  • Buttock augmentation
  • Buccal fat extraction
  • Buttock lift
  • Cheek augmentation
  • Chemical peel
  • Chin augmentation
  • Fillers injections
  • Labiaplasty
  • Laser skin resurfacing
  • Lip enhancement
  • Liposuction
  • Mammoplasty
  • Mastopexy
  • Midface lift
  • Orthognathic Surgery
  • Otoplasty
  • Phalloplasty
  • Reduction mammoplasty
  • Rhinoplasty
  • Rhytidectomy

No surgery, even minor surgery, is risk free. In addition, cosmetic surgery is rarely covered by health insurance and can be quite expensive. In 2007, the fees for some cosmetic surgeries were released as a national average in the United States. Some of the most common carried steep fees:

    cosmetic surgery
  • Liposuction: $2,892
  • Facelift: $5,031
  • Hair transplant: $4,543
  • Abdominoplasty: $5,264
  • Botox: $501
  • Chemical Peel: $744

If you're wondering how much it would cost today for our old friend Walter Yeo (the soldier who received one of the first modern cosmetic surgery peocedures) to have his eyelids replaced, it would be $3,134, compared to $171.07 in 1917. That's about half a years salary for a soldier during World War I.

Fortunately for Yeo, the surgery was performed free of charge provided he was willing to take part in early 20th century experimental cosmetic surgery. It's unsurprising that, despite the good deal, there weren't many patients crammed into those waiting rooms.